% of Workers

  1. Italy: 53.5% (In Italy, estimates of the Smart Working Observatory (2020), show that the number of workers involved in telework could reach up to 5,350,000 in the future, up from 570 000 in 2019, and the intensity of smart working activities is expected to increase compared to the pre-pandemic period, with the hybrid system preferred. Smart working is expected to increase in public administrations and in sectors with "teleworkable" activities or in teleworkable functional areas (e.g. administration and management).
  2. Ireland: 53.4% (Telework during the national lockdown was mostly implemented in Dublin and in its region. Moreover, the lockdown had a significant impact on Ireland, due to the relatively high proportion of forcefully closed sectors (over 12%, fifth in the EU). In Ireland, a survey among teleworkers (Western Development Commission, 2020) found that 93% of them want to continue working from home in the future).
  3. Belgium: Over 50% 
  4. Finland: 47.4% ( Finland registered a higher share of teleworkers compared to the other EU countries due to several factors, such as the larger proportion of workers in knowledge- and ICT-intensive service sectors, the institutional setting, the level of digitalisation and the prevailing culture of trust. In Finland, teleworking is expected to return to pre-pandemic levels, which were already relatively high compared to the EU average) 
  5. Germany: 41.4% ( A national survey 9 of 500 German large companies 10 during May 2020 reported that 70% of respondents stated that office workers completely or mostly worked from home during the COVID-19 pandemic, while 21% were involved in hybrid models (home working/office working). Two other on-line surveys conducted by the Institute for Employment Research (2021) between May and October 2020 on employees (except public servants) showed that in May 2020, 39% had the opportunity to work from home. Of these, 81% reported to work from home in May 2020, compared to only 44% before the pandemic. Also, the proportion of workers that only work from home increased enormously: from 4% to 46% of men and from 7% to 43% of women. In Germany, a survey of companies (Federal Agency for Health and Safety at Work and Occupational Medicine BAUA, 2020) carried out in October 2020 found that 18% of responding companies were planning to expand working from home (especially large businesses); while the majority, 67%, planned to go back to the level prevailing before the pandemic; 9% were planning to reduce teleworking, and 5% were not yet sure what they were going to do. An online survey conducted by the Institute for Employment Research (IAB, 2021) in August 2020, showed that a third of people who can work from home (37%) would prefer to work from home flexibly. After working flexibly from home, the other most selected options were three days a week and two days a week (18% and 14%). Only 7% would like to work exclusively from home. In Ireland, a survey among teleworkers (Western Development Commission, 2020) found that 93% of them want to continue working from home in the future
  6. Spain: Above 40%
  7. France: Above 40%
  8. Portugal: 40%
  9. Denmark: 40%
  10. Romania: 31.4% (Despite a sharp increase in the share of teleworkers during the pandemic, remained the country with the lowest share of teleworkers,. Nevertheless, recent sector-specific surveys show that in certain sectors, during the pandemic the shares of teleworkers were a lot higher than the national average of 30.1%. For example, during the pandemic, 50% of companies surveyed in the business service sector used "full telework", while 45% used hybrid models; 74% of companies surveyed in the financial sector used telework (Price Waterhouse Cooper PWC, 2020); over 50% of the executive and management staff in the public sector used telework and around 30% used hybrid models (Institutul Naţional de Administraţie, 2020). On the other hand, telework in the logistics (26%) and pharmaceutical (24%) companies surveyed was below the national average (Price Waterhouse Cooper PWC, 2020).
  11. Greece: Above 20%
  12. Croatia: 20%
  13. Poland: 20%
  14. Slovakia: 20%
  15. Bulgaria: 20%
  16. Hungary: 20%





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