1. Austria: Lobbying firms: companies whose business purpose is to carry out lobbying activities for clients in return for payment; Companies employing company lobbyists: companies employing staff for the purpose of lobbying on their own behalf on condition that a significant amount of his/her responsibilities is taken up by lobbying activities; Self-governing bodies: bodies established by law to represent the professional or common interests of its members. This includes the Chamber of Commerce and Labour and professional associations; Advocacy groups: legal associations of private individuals.
  2. Belgium: Persons representing the following institutions: 1. Specialised consulting firms, law firms; and freelance consultants; 2. Internal representatives, professional groups and associations, and trade unions; 3. Non-governmental organisations; 4. Think tanks, research bodies and university institutions; 5. Organisations representing churches and religious communities; 6. Organisations representing local, regional and municipal authorities and other public or semi-public entities
  3. Bulgaria: No definition
  4. Croatia: No definition
  5. Cyprus: No definition
  6. Czech Rep: No definition
  7. Denmark: No definition
  8. Estonia: No definition
  9. Finland: No definition
  10. France: Interest representatives - organisations: executives, employees or members of legal persons under private law who communicate with public officials with the aim to influence public decisions. These organisations include: 1. Civil and commercial companies; 2. Law firms and consulting firms, 3. Professional organisations; 4. Trade unions and chambers of commerce; 5. Non-governmental organisations; 6. Think tanks, research institutes, foundations; 7. Public bodies conducting an industrial and commercial activity. Interest representatives – self-employed individuals: natural persons who are not employed by a legal person – self-employed lawyer, lawyer working in an unincorporated entity, independent consultant – who initiative communications with public officials with the aim to influence public decisions.
  11. Germany: Interest representatives are all natural or legal persons, partnerships or other organisations, including in the form of networks, platforms or other forms of collective action, which themselves carry out or commission interest representation activities.
  12. Greece: No definition
  13. Hungary: Lobbyists are defined as “persons outside the state organisation” but no further definition is provided.
  14. Ireland: Lobbyists include the following actors who communicate directly or indirectly about a relevant matter with a designated public official: 1. An employer with more than 10 employees where the communications are made on its behalf; 2. A representative body with at least one employee communicating on behalf of its members and the communication is made by a paid employee or office holder of the body 3. An advocacy body with at least one employee that exists primarily to take up particular issues and a paid employee or office holder of the body is communicating on such issues; 4. A third party being paid to communicate on behalf of a client who fits into one of the preceding three categories; 5. Any person communicating about the development or zoning of land.
  15. Italy: Any natural or legal person who intends to carry out activities of interest representation towards Members of the Chamber of Deputies, whether of their own or of a client. This includes trade unions and employers’ associations, non-governmental organisations, businesses, trade associations, subjects specialising in professional representation of third party interests, professional associations, consumers’ associations.
  16. Latvia: A natural or legal person who upon his or her own initiative in his or her own interest or in the interests of other natural or legal persons communicates with a public employee or his/her institution in order to influence the drafting or taking of decisions.
  17. Lithuania: A ‘Lobbyist’ means a natural person, legal entity or another organisation or a division thereof, engaged in lobbying activities. Clients of lobbying activities means natural or legal persons or any other organisation or division thereof that have concluded a written lobbying contract with a lobbyist or a legal person that has assigned or instructed its participant, member of the management body or employee to conduct lobbying activities
  18. Luxembourg: No definition
  19. Malta: No definition
  20. Netherlands: Advocates/lobbyists are: 1. Employees of public affairs and public relations firms; 2. Representatives of civil society organizations/industry associations/umbrella organisations; 3. Representatives of municipalities and provinces.
  21. Poland: Professional lobbyist: natural person or legal person paid to carry on lobbying activities on behalf of or in the name of a third party.
  22. Portugal: No definition
  23. Romania: “Specialised groups” means any legally constituted group, based in Romania or carrying out activities in Romania, or being registered in another country, including: 1. Companies with legal personality; 2 Associations, foundations and federations; 3. Religious organisations; 4. Trade unions and employers’ organisations; 5. Chambers of commerce; 6. Local government associations. 7. Other legally constituted organisations. 8. Authorised persons, self-employed individuals and family businesses, and law firms.
  24. Slovakia: No definition
  25. Slovenia: “Lobbyist” means any person who carries out activities on behalf of interest groups, or a person who is engaged in lobbying and is employed in an interest group and lobbies on its behalf, or a person who is an elected or otherwise legitimate representative of this interest group. “Interest groups” means legal persons governed by private law, and other legally regulated forms of association of natural or legal persons, on behalf and for the account of which a lobbyist performs a lobbying activity
  26. Spain: Interest groups are natural or legal persons, or entities without legal personality, that communicates directly or indirectly with holders of public or elected office or their personnel in favour of private, public, or collective interests, seeking to modify or influence issues related to the drafting or modification of legislative initiatives. N:B. Though the Code includes a definition specifying targeted office holders, only Members of Parliament are required to make their agenda public.
  27. Sweden: No definition

EU:  Interest Representatives are ‘Organisation or self-employed individual’ means any organisation or individual, irrespective of their legal status, engaged in activities carried out with the objective of directly or indirectly influencing the formulation or implementation of policy and the decision-making processes of the institutions of the Union, irrespective of where these activities are undertaken and of the channel or medium of communication used.

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