Micro-Mobility for Europe (MMfE) is a new coalition comprising 8 Founding Members:

  1. Tier, HQ Berlin, Germany (+70 cities in 9 countries)
  2. Voi, HQ Stockholm, Sweden (+40 cities in 11 countries)
  3. Bird, HQ Santa Monica, USA (+100 cities)
  4. Bolt, HQ  Tallin, Estonia (+200 cities in 40 countries)
  5. Free Now, HQ Hamburg, Germany (+100 cities)
  6. Lime, HQ San Francisco, USA (+120 cities in 30 countries)
  7. Wind, HQ Berlin/Barcelona, Spain (+20 cities in 6 countries)
  8. Dott, HQ Amsterdam, Netherlands (+15 cities in 5 countries)

The aim of the coalition is to contribute to the development of a coherent policy framework in Europe that will ensure micro-mobility solutions flourish in European cities and support the rapid transition to zero-emission urban mobility.

Members of MMfE work to address issues like congestion and the tailpipe emissions associated with urban travel, together with the cities in which they operate, to ultimately transform urban mobility. They operate in over 20 EU countries across more than 100 European cities.

MMfE have identified urban mobility, data governance and circular economy as their top priorities to ensure that shared micro -mobility is an integral part of EU policy developments in the coming years.


The increased use and availability of e-scooters (electric scooters) in cities brings opportunities for sustainable modes and challenges for those managing the public space. The fast pace at which cities have witnessed the increased popularity of e-scooters has highlighted the lack of regulatory frameworks for using and exploiting emerging mobility modes. This has resulted in the pressing need for local and national regulations and approaches to organize the market and keep public spaces tidy.

Safety concerns are one of the most pressing issues to be tackled, particularly the needs and safety of other vulnerable road users.

The European Transport Safety Council’s report on Urban Road Safety calls for the need for data and regulation for e-scooters and new forms of mobility to assess its impact on road safety and to reflect on national and city-level regulations and infrastructure adjustments. At the city level, it issues specific recommendations on urban road safety that can greatly contribute to a higher level of safety associated with e-scooter usage, particularly the adoption of 30 km/h zones supported by traffic calming measures.

Another particular challenge relates to the space e-scooters take upon the public space, which in turn has spillover effects for safely using the micro-vehicles and occupying public space. To tackle the matter of street clutter, space reallocation and adequate parking need to become a reality. If the parking of e-scooters is not controlled, it may adversely affect the mobility of vulnerable road users (e.g. blind and partially-sighted people, senior citizens and children). In response to chaotic e-scooter parking, several cities are reallocating several car parking spaces to e-scooters.

An additional topic of contention relates to the environmental impact of e-scooters. While they may be zero-emission vehicles, initial studies seem to indicate that these vehicles are not as environmentally friendly as initially thought. Their reduced life span (some studies indicate as little as three months to a year), the common charging and maintenance model and the waste generated by the disposal of their parts does not seem to abide by the highest standards of sustainability. E-scooters operators need to address these concerns, not only to promote sustainable mobility but also for the sustainability of their business models.

Specific regulations have been implemented all over Europe, but without an all-encompassing framework, with considerable differences in the chosen approach between local and national levels, but also across countries. In many cases, local approaches were put in place earlier simply because they did not need national approval for this purpose., whereas other cities had to wait for national guidance. All things considered, case-by-case policies can be transferred easily to address universal issues raised by the inclusion of e-scooters in urban mobility, with necessary adaptations to take account of local characteristics. 

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