1. Ageing population: Ageing populations in developed and developing countries driven by declining fertility and decrease of middle-and old-age mortality.
  2. Changing landscape of international governance: Changing landscape of global or regional institutions (e.g. UN, IMF, NATO, WTO etc.) agreements or networks.
  3. Changing climate: Change of climate, which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity, that alters the composition of the global atmosphere, in addition to natural climate variability.
  4. Degrading environment: Deterioration of the quality of air, soil and water from ambient concentrations of pollutants and other activities and processes.
  5. Growing middle class in emerging economies: Growing share of population reaching middle-class income levels in emerging economies.
  6. Increasing national sentiment: Increasing national sentiment among populations and political leaders affecting countries’ national and international political and economic positions.
  7. Increasing polarization of societies: Inability to reach agreement on key issues within countries because of diverging or extreme values, political or religious views.
  8. Rising chronic diseases: Increasing rates of non-communicable diseases, also known a ‘chronic diseases’ leading to rising costs of long term treatment and threatening recent societal gains in life expectancy and quality.
  9. Rising cyber dependency: Rise of cyber dependency due to increasing digital interconnection of people, things and organizations.
  10. Rising geographic mobility: Increasing mobility of people and things due to quicker and better performing means of transport and mower regulatory barriers.
  11. Rising income and wealth disparity: Increasing socioeconomic gap between rich and poor in major countries or regions.
  12. Shifting power: Shifting power from state to non-state actors and individuals, from global to regional levels, and from developed to emerging market and developing economies.
  13. Rising urbanization: Rising number of people living in urban areas resulting in physical growth of cities.

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