FOREIGN ELECTORAL INTERVENTION

In recent decades, it has become increasingly common for countries to involve themselves in foreign elections. Often, this involvement aims to enhance democracy without favoring a particular candidate or party. Before elections, foreign governments and NGOs assist with electoral reforms, and during elections they monitor activities to detect and deter irregularities. In some cases, however, countries seek to tip the scales; they use rhetoric and/or resources to give specific parties or candidates an electoral advantage.

THE EUROPEAN UNION'S CYBER DIPLOMACY

The European Union's cyber-diplomacy is focused on ensuring that governments, the private sector, civil society organizations around the globe understand the impact of an open, free and secure cyberspace on their lives and that they are capable of taking action to protect it.

DIGITAL DIPLOMACY VS CYBER DIPLOMACY

The concept of cyber diplomacy is often associated with digital diplomacy, electronic diplomacy or computer diplomacy. Overlapping use of these concepts raises confusion over the relationship between diplomacy and the digital world.

Digital (Electronic or Computer) Diplomacy

EUROPEAN UNION AGENCY FOR CYBERSECURITY (ENISA)

The European Union Agency for Cybersecurity (ENISA) has been working to make Europe cyber secure since 2004. The Agency is located in Athens, Greece and has a second office in Heraklion, Greece.

ENISA is actively contributing to European cybersecurity policy, supporting Member States and European Union stakeholders to support a response to large-scale cyber incidents that take place across borders in cases where two or more EU Member States have been affected. This work also contributes to the proper functioning of the Digital Single Market.

CODE OF ETHICS OF JOURNALISTS

Source: Society of Professional Journalists (SPJ)

SEEK TRUTH AND REPORT IT

Ethical journalism should be accurate and fair. Journalists should be honest and courageous in gathering, reporting and interpreting information.

Journalists should:

EUROPEAN CHARTER ON FREEDOM OF THE PRESS

  1. Freedom of the press is essential to a democratic society. To uphold and protect it, and to respect its diversity and its political, social and cultural missions, is the mandate of all governments.
  2. Censorship is impermissible. Independent journalism in all media is free of persecution and repression, without a guarantee of political or regulatory interference by government. Press and online media shall not be subject to state licensing.

MEDIA PLURALISM AND MEDIA FREEDOM IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

European Parliament Resolution of 3 May 2018

1. Calls on the Member States to take appropriate measures, including ensuring adequate public funding, to safeguard and promote a pluralist, independent and free media landscape in the service of democratic society, including the independence and sustainability of public service media and community media and grassroots media, which are crucial elements of a favorable environment for guaranteeing the fundamental right to freedom of expression and information;

PROTECTING MEDIA FREEDOM ORGANIZATIONS

1. European Federation of Journalists (https://europeanjournalists.org): The European Federation of Journalists (EFJ) is the largest organization of journalists in Europe, representing over 320.000 journalists across 39 countries. The EFJ was created in 1994 within the framework of the IFJ Constitution to represent the interests and defend social and professional rights of journalists working in all sectors of the media across Europe.

FIGHTING CLIMATE CHANGE WITHOUT A NATIONAL CLIMATE POLICY

Despite President Trump‘s decision to withdraw from the Paris climate accord, the United States hasn’t completely abandoned the landmark international agreement.

LEGALLY AND OFFENSIVE ACTIONS UNDER U.S. FEDERAL CODE

Corrupt and Unlawful Conduct

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