CHINESE INFLUENCE ACTIVITIES IN GERMANY

Source: Larry Diamond, Senior Fellow The Hoover Institution, Stanford University  

CHINESE FOREIGN INTERFERENCE ACTIVITIES

Source: Anne-Mary Brady, New Zealand, draws on 30 years of research into China

Chinese interference falls into four categories:

COUNTERING CHINESE INFLUENCE IN EUROPE

If European political decision-makers want to counter problematic elements of China’s political engagement of both state and non-state actors, they need to act swiftly and decisively.

1. Leverage the (collective) weight of EU member states

CHINESE INFLUENCE ACTIVITIES IN FRANCE

Source: Larry Diamond, Senior Fellow The Hoover Institution, Stanford University  

Original Text has been edited

EU COUNTRIES LOBBYING IN THE U.S.A. (2018)

Austria

  • Advantage Austria at the Austrian Federal Economic Chamber (WKO)
  • Federal Economic Chamber of Austria
  • Government of Austria
  • Austrian National Tourist Office

Belgium

  • Flanders Tourism Board

Bulgaria

  • Tzvetan, Vassiliev
  • Aviora Consult EAD on behalf of Delyan Peevski

Czech Republic

  • Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  • OilProm s.r.o.

Cyprus

DIASPORA DIPLOMACY

Diasporas are non-state actors that interact with state actors, primarily their host state – the state they currently live in – and their homeland – their country of origin. As mobilised groups with a strong sense of identity, diasporas can play a role both in domestic and in international politics. As far as domestic politics is concerned, they may influence both the domestic politics of their homelands and the domestic politics of their host states regarding issues that are of interest to them.

FOREIGN REGISTRATION ACT (FARA) USA IN A NUTSHELL

Source: The Foreign Agents Registration Act (“FARA”): A Guide for the Perplexed published by Law Firm Covington & Burling LLP. Covington & Burling LLP is an international law firm, that provides corporate, litigation and regulatory expertise to enable clients to achieve their goals.

ETHNIC LOBBYING

Ethnic lobbying may advocate interests of a distinct group in the host country or may seek to influence foreign policy of the host country towards the country of origin or third countries. Currently, ethnic interest groups spend millions of dollars annually to influence U.S. foreign policy and to “block the influence of rival ethnic lobbies” . Driven by ethno-cultural differences, foreign conflicts and antagonistic interests of the rival parties, ethnic lobbies manage to mobilize strength of their constituent communities and to profoundly impact the U.S.

WHY INVOLVE NON-STATE ACTORS IN PUBLIC DIPLOMACY?

  1. Non-state actors’ activities are freer from skepticism as they enjoy more neutrality and credibility in the field. They are more neutral and more inclined towards universal values because they are not necessarily seen as self-interested. Furthermore, their credibility comes from their expertise and know-how on the ground with adequate local knowledge. They have more visibility in the field grounded in actions and events which lead to more healthy interpersonal behavioral relationships as opposed to mediated symbolic relationships.

DIPLOMATIC OUTSOURCING

Lobbying and diplomacy are activities aimed at representing certain interests in front of the decision-makers and the public of a political system; at informing policy-makers and the public about certain policies, specific viewpoints, etc. ; at communicating these issues via formal and informal channels ; at influencing the formulation and implementation of policies ; and at building relationships . Moreover, both rest on persuasion , as diplomats and lobbyists have to convince their counterparts of the importance of their perspective, information and interests.

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